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      Python随机数random模块使用指南
      发布时间:2016-12-21 08:02:57 关键词: python,random随机数,python,random模块,python中random模块
      内容简介:本文给大家分享的是Python随机数random模块的几个常用的方法,非常的简单,小伙伴们喜欢的话,后续继续深入探讨

    random 模块是Python自带的模块,除了生成最简单的随机数以外,还有很多功能。

    random.random()

    用来生成一个0~1之间的随机浮点数,范围[0,10

    >>> import random
    >>> random.random()
    0.5038461831828231
    

    random.uniform(a,b)

    返回a,b之间的随机浮点数,范围[a,b]或[a,b),取决于四舍五入,a不一定要比b小。

    >>> random.uniform(50,100)
    76.81733455677832
    >>> random.uniform(100,50)
    52.98730193316595
    

    random.randint(a,b)

    返回a,b之间的整数,范围[a,b],注意:传入参数必须是整数,a一定要比b小

    >>> random.randint(50,100)
    54
    >>> random.randint(100,50)
     
    Traceback (most recent call last):
     File "<pyshell#6>", line 1, in <module>
      random.randint(100,50)
     File "C:\Python27\lib\random.py", line 242, in randint
      return self.randrange(a, b+1)
     File "C:\Python27\lib\random.py", line 218, in randrange
      raise ValueError, "empty range for randrange() (%d,%d, %d)" % (istart, istop, width)
    ValueError: empty range for randrange() (100,51, -49)
    >>> random.randint(50.5,100.6)
     
    Traceback (most recent call last):
     File "<pyshell#7>", line 1, in <module>
      random.randint(50.5,100.6)
     File "C:\Python27\lib\random.py", line 242, in randint
      return self.randrange(a, b+1)
     File "C:\Python27\lib\random.py", line 187, in randrange
      raise ValueError, "non-integer arg 1 for randrange()"
    ValueError: non-integer arg 1 for randrange()
    

    random.randrang([start], stop[, step])

    返回有个区间内的整数,可以设置step。只能传入整数,random.randrange(10, 100, 2),结果相当于从[10, 12, 14, 16, … 96, 98]序列中获取一个随机数。

    >>> random.randrange(100)
    58
    >>> random.randrange(10,100,2)
    54
    

    random.choice(sequence)

    从序列中随机获取一个元素,list, tuple, 字符串都属于sequence。这里的sequence 需要是有序类型。random.randrange(10,100,2)在结果上与 random.choice(range(10,100,2) 等效。

    >>> random.choice(("stone","scissors","paper"))
    'stone'
    >>> random.choice(["stone","scissors","paper"])
    'scissors'
    >>> random.choice("Random")
    'm'
    

    random.shuffle(x[,random])

    用于将列表中的元素打乱,俗称为洗牌。会修改原有序列。

    >>> poker = ["A","2","3","4","5","6","7","8","9","10","J","Q","K"]
    >>> random.shuffle(poker)
    >>> poker
    ['4', '10', '8', '3', 'J', '6', '2', '7', '9', 'Q', '5', 'K', 'A']
    

    random.sample(sequence,k)

    从指定序列中随机获取k个元素作为一个片段返回,sample函数不会修改原有序列。

    >>> poker = ["A","2","3","4","5","6","7","8","9","10","J","Q","K"]
    >>> random.sample(poker,5)
    ['4', '3', '10', '2', 'Q']
    

    上述几个方式是Python常用的一些方法,但是关于随机数还有很多的故事。下回分解~

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